Simple Postpositions – part 2 (on, to)

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Today we are going to learn the Hindi equivalent for the words “on” and “to”.  In the last episode, we mentioned that in Hindi we call these “postpositions” because they come “after” or “post” the noun that they show the relation to.  More about that after we give you the answer to the review questions from last time.  If you have not answered these yet, you might want to listen to the last lesson before continuing.

Translate the following from Hindi to English:

1) वह – this

2) घर – house

3) गाड़ी – train

4) तक – up to

Translate the following from English to Hindi:

5) in – में

6) from – से

7) no – नहीं

8) pen – क़लम

Use the correct postposition in the following sentences:

9) मैं घर __में__ हूँ।

10) वह आगरा _____ है।

Actually, there could be at least two correct answers to this.

“He is in Agra.” Would be: वह आगरा में है।

“He is from Agra.” would be:

वह आगरा से है।

Lesson for today:

The first word we learn today is पर (par) which means  “on”.  Here are two sample sentences:

क़लम मेज़ पर है। (qalam mez par hai)- The pen is on the table.

बिल्ली कुरसी पर है। (billii kursii par hai)- The cat is on the chair.

 

The next word we are learning to day is को (ko) which means “to”.

मैं अपने पिताजी को उपहार देता हूँ। (mein apane pitaajii ko upahaar detaa huun) – 

I give the gift to my father.

 

अपने (apne) is an interesting word.  If I am talking about myself, then it would refer to “my” thing.  But if I was talking about you in the sentence, it would refer to “your” thing.  And if I was talking about someone else in the sentence it would refer to “his” thing.  This one word would be used for “my own”, “your own”, “ones own”..

 

The verb changes depending on if this is spoken by a man or a woman.  Use देता (detaa) if the speaker is a man.  Use देती (detii) if the speaker is a woman.

 

 

The next example illustrates not only the use of को but also one of those grammatical conventions that is significantly different in Hindi as compared to English.  For example, in English you would say “What do you want?”  But in Hindi you would say “What is wanted by you?”  Which is the other example of using को today.  We will be discussing this in more detail in a future lesson.

आप को क्या चाहिये?  (aap ko kyaa chahiye)  What do you want?

 

Here are some review questions to test what you have learned today.

Review Questions:

Translate the following from Hindi into English:

1) मेज़

2) पर

3) बिल्ली

4) कुरसी

Translate the following from English into Hindi:

5) I

6) am

7) to

8) gift

Which postposition would make the most sense in the following sentences.

9) वह मेज़ ____ नहीं है।

10) खाना चिड़िया _____ दो।

 

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