Today we are going to learn about the first person present tense. This would be sentences like “I go”, “I eat”, “I speak”, and the like.
Now let us go over the review questions from the last episode.
Give the Oblique case for the following pronouns which are listed in the direct case:
1) मैं (main) – मुझ (mujh)
2) वे (ve) – उन (un)
Translate the following sentences from English into Hindi:
3) Do you want water?
क्या आप को पानी चाहिए?
(kyaa aap ko paanii chaahie)
4) They (over there) want a car.
उन को गाड़ी चाहिए।
(un ko gari chahie)
5) He (close by) does not want a house.
इस को घर नहीं चाहिए।
(is ko ghar nahiin chahie)
Fill in the blank:
6) वे प्यासे हैं। _उन को___ पानी चाहिए।
(ve pyaase hain. un ko paanii chaahie)
7) जब मुझे भूख लगती है तब _मुझ को___ खाना चाहिए।
Translate the following from Hindi into English:
8) गाड़ी – car
9) कमरा – room
10) कमरे – rooms
When you look up verbs in the dictionary, you will find they all end in “ना” (naa). When you remove this, you have the stem. For example, “जाना” (jaanaa) is the verb for “to go”. The stem of this verb is “जा” (jaa). In order to make the first person, present tense of this verb you add ता (taa) or ती (tii) depending on if you are a man or a woman.
For example, if a man wanted to say “I go” then he would say मैं जाता हूँ। (main jaataa huun) but if a woman wanted to say “I go” she would say मैं जाती हूँ। (main jaatii huun)
Let us look at some more examples. खाना (khaanaa) means to eat. A man would say मैं खाता हूँ। (main khaataa huun) to say “I eat.” But a woman would say मैं खाती हूँ। (main khaataa huun).
खेलना (khelnaa) is the verb that means “to play.” A man would say, “I play” by saying मैं खेलता हूँ। (main kheltaa huun) and a woman would say मैं खेलती हूँ। (main kheltii huun).
The verb to speak is बोलना (boolnaa). A man would say मैं बोलता हूँ। (main boltaa huun) and a woman would say “I speak” by saying मैं बोलती हूँ। (main booltii huun).
You should see the pattern now. We have a number of new verbs in the exercises at the end for you to practice with.
Let us make the sentences above a little more complex.
A man could say, “I go to the office.” by saying “मैं दफ्तर को जाता हूँ।” (main daphtar ko and a woman would say “I go to the office” by saying मैं दफ्तर को जाती हूँ। (main daphtar jaatii huun). Here you can replace the word for office, दफ्तर (daphtar) with any place. Remember that को (ko) is the postposition that means “to”.
A man could say “I eat mangos” by saying “मैं आम खाता हूँ।” (main aam khaataa huun) and a woman could say “I don’t eat onion by saying “मैं प्याज़ नहीं खाती हूँ।” (main pyaaz nahiin khaatii huun) In everyday conversation, you will find that the last हूँ (huun) will be dropped if it is a negative statement. In this case the woman could just say मैं प्याज़ नहीं खाती। (main pyaaz nahiin khaatii).
A man could say “I don’t play kubaddi” by saying मैं कबड्डी नहीं खेलता हूँ। (main kabddii nahiin kheltaa huun). And a woman could say “I play cricket” by saying “मैं क्रिकेट खेलती हूँ।” (main kriket kheltii huun).
A man could say “I speak Hindi” by saying मैं हिंदी बोलता हूँ। (main hindii boltaa huun) and a woman could say “I speak English” by saying “मैं अँग्रेज़ी बोलती हूँ” (main angrazii huun).
Now here are some review questions to give you a chance to practice what you learned.
Here are some new verbs that you will use:
आना – to come
देखना – to see
सीखना – to learn
सुनना – to listen
Translate each of the following sentences two times. First as if a man was saying it, and then as if a woman was saying it.
1) I come.
2) I see.
3) I learn Hindi.
4) I listen to Hindi.
Translate the following from Hindi into English. Also determine if it is being spoken by a man or a woman.
5) मैं एक आम देखता हूँ।
6) मैं क्रिकेट देखती हूँ।
Translate the following into Hindi:
7) to go
8) to speak
9) to eat
10) to play
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