Last time we talked about the first person past tense for intransitive verbs. You would think that in this lesson we will talk about the past tense for transitive verbs. However, the grammar is very different. Instead of agreeing with the speaker, it agrees with the direct object, the thing that receives the action. Therefore, we will come back and talk about the past tense for transitive verbs after we cover the other tenses and the different types of nouns.
In this lesson we will learn about the first person/singular future tense. Examples: “I will eat.” “I will drink.” “I will speak.” etc.
Let us go over the answers to the last episode’s review questions. If you have not listen to the last episode, you might want to before continuing.
Translate each of the following sentences two times. First as if a man was saying it, and then as if a woman was saying it.
|1) I waited.||मैं ठहरा।
|2) I moved.||मैं चला।
|3) I fell.||मैं गिरा।
|4) I met.||मैं मिला।
|5) I cried.||मैं रोया।
Translate the following from Hindi into English. Indicate if it is spoken by a man or a woman.
6) मैं नहीं उठा। (main nahiin uthaa)
Man said, “I did not rise.”
7) मैं नहीं भूली। (main nahiin bhuulii)
Woman said, “I did not forget.”
8) मैं आया और अभी मैं जाता हूँ। (main aayaa aur abhii main jaataa huun)
Man said, “I came and now I go.”
9) मैं आयी और तब मैं ठहरी। (main aayii aur tab main thaharii)
Woman said, “I came and then I waited.”
10) जब मैं गिरा तब मैं रोया। (jab main giraa tab main royaa)
Man said, “When I fell then I cried.”
Let us start with some examples of the future tense. If a man says “I will speak,” then he would say “मैं बोलूँगा” (main boluungaa) But if a woman would say, “I will speak”, then she would say, “मैं बोलूँगी” (main boluungii). Let us look at the pattern here a little closer. The verb बोलना (bolnaa) means “to speak”. Drop the ना (naa) and you have the root or stem बोल (bol) then in the case of a man, you add ऊँगा (uungaa) to make बोलूँगा (boluungaa). In the case of a woman you add ऊँगी (uungii) to make बोलूँगी (boluungii).
Here is another example. आना (aanaa) means “to come.” Take off the ending, the ना (naa) and you are left आ (aa). Then for a man, add ऊँगा (uungaa) to make आऊँगा (aauungaa). A man could say, “I will come” by saying, “मैं आऊँगा” (main aauungaa). A woman would take the stem of the verb, आ (aa) and add ऊँगी (uungii) to make आऊँगी (aauungii). A woman could say, “I will come” by saying, “मैं आऊँगी” (main aauungii).
Here are some more examples.
सीखना (siikhnaa) means “to learn.”
A man would say, “I will learn.” by saying “मैं सीखूँगा” (main siikhuungaa) A woman would say, “I will learn” by saying, “मैं सीखूँगी” (main siikhuungii).
खेलना (khelnaa) means “to play.”
A man would say, “I will play.” by saying “मैं खेलूँगा” (main kheluungaa) and a woman would say “I will play.” by saying “मैं खेलूँगी” (main kheluungii).
Use the following verbs in the exercises below.
पीना – to drink
खाना – to eat
जाना – to go
मिलना – to meet
देखना – to see
Translate each sentence two times. First as if a man was saying then as if a woman was saying it.
1) I will drink.
2) I will eat.
3) I will go.
4) I will meet.
5) I will see.
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