Past Tense

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Past Tense

Past tense denotes an action in the past. There are 6 types of past tense. These types differentiates whether the action happened in the immediate past or long time back.

Past Indefinite (सामान्य भूतकाल)

It refers to an action (or experience) in the past, without any indication of the actual time.

The Tense might well be called ” The Vague Past Tense”. Past Indefinite tense is formed by adding आ, ए, ई to the verb root.

Intransitive Verbs (अकर्मक)

I spoke.
मैं बोला |
Main bola

We ran.
हम दौड़े|
Hum daude

When did you wake up?
तुम कब उठे?
Tum kab uthe?

They stayed in a hotel.
वे एक होटेल में ठहेरे |
Ve ek hotel mein thehere

Kamala came yesterday.
कमला कल आयी |
Kamala kal aayee

When did you go to the town?
आप कब शहर गये?
Aap kab shahar gaye?

Why did he laugh?
वह क्यो हॅसा?
Vah kyo hassa?

Last night we slept only for two hours.
हम कल रात में सिर्फ़ दो घंटे सोये |
Hum kal raat mein sirf do ghante soye

I did not go to yesterday’s meeting/program.
मैं कल की सभा में नहीं गयी |
Main kal ki sabha mein nahin gayi

Transitive Verbs (सकर्मक)

I ate.
मैने खाया|
Maine khaya

Ram said
राम ने कहा |
Ram ne kaha

Bhama heard.
भामा ने सुना |
Bhama ne suna

We ate fruits.
हम ने फल खाए |
Hum ne phal khaye

You drank coffee.
आप ने काफ़ी पी |
Aap ne kaphi pi

How many dollars did Girija give him/her?
गिरिजा ने उसको कितने डॉलर्स दिए?
Girija ne usko kitane dollars diye?

The doctor examined Shyla yesterday.
कल डाक्टर ने शयला को देखा |
Kal dactar ne shyla ko dekha

Our neighbours caught the thieves.
हमारे पड़ोसियों ने चोरों को पकड़ा |
Hamare padosiyon ne choron ko pakada

Who did this work?
यह काम किसने किया?
Yeh kaam kisne kiya?

N.B.-

1) A transitive verb in the past tense agrees with the Object (not with the Subject) in number and gender.

2) The subject of a transitive verb in the past indefinite is always followed by ने.

3) When the object is not mentioned or when the object is followed by को, the transitive verb always remains in the masculine singular.

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