Noun – संज्ञा (Sanjna) – part 3

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3)  Abstract Noun – भाववाचक संज्ञा (bhavvachak sanjna)

Abstract noun is something that can’t be sensed by our five senses (smell, touch, hear, see or taste). They usually represent feeling, ideas and qualities. They can be countable or uncountable.

प्यार (love), घृणा (hate), हिंसा (violence), संस्कृति (culture), स्वाद (taste)

Abstract noun can be formed from:

  1. the name of a quality – गुण (Gun)

    egs:-अच्छाई (goodness), सफेदी (whiteness), इमान्दारी (honesty), बहादुरी (bravery), etc

  1. action – कर्म (karm)

    egs:-प्रसन्नता (pleasure), फैसला(judgement), खेल(play), लड़ाई (fight)

  1. state – अवस्था (avastha)

    egs:- बचपन (childhood), गरीबी (poverty), युवावस्था (youth), ठंड (cold)

  1. Collective Noun – समुदायावाचक संज्ञा (Samudaayavachak sanjna)

Collective nouns are nouns that refer to things or people as a unit.

Examples: परिवार (family), पुलिस (police), कक्षा (class), झुण्ड (team), etc.

  1. Material Noun- द्राव्यवाचक संज्ञा (Dravyavachak sanjna)

Nouns that refer to the names of a liquid or matter are classified under this category.

egs:- सोना (gold), लोहा (iron), पानी (water)

Usages:

His anger knows no limits.
उसके गुस्से का कोई सीमा नहीं है
uske gusse ka koi seema nahin hai

That crowd went wild.
वह भीड़ जंगली हो गया
Vah bheed janglee ho gaya

India has an interesting culture
भारत की संस्कृति दिलचस्प है
Bharat ki sanskriti dilchasp hai

Do you give charity?
क्या तुम दान देते हो?
Kya tum daan dete ho?

He takes a lot of pride in his work.
वह अपने काम पे बहुत गर्व करता है
Vah apne kaam pe bahut garv karta hai

A flock of birds
पक्षियों का झुंड
pakshiyon ka jund

My family is important to me.
मेरा परिवार मेरे लिए महत्वपूर्ण है
Mera parivaar mere liye mahetvapoorn hai

You shouldn’t judge him on one achievement /failure / progress /success.
तुम उसे एक उपलब्दि/ असफलता/प्रगती/सफलता पर मत जजना
Tum use ek upalabdi/ asaphalta/ pragati/saphalta par math jajana

 

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