Adjectives – विशेषण (Visheshan)

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Adjectives – विशेषण (Visheshan)

An adjective is often defined as a word which describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun.  Adjectives describe nouns in terms of such qualities as size, color, number, and kind. 

Adjectives agree with the nouns they qualify.  Hindi adjectives are of two types: those that inflect (change their endings), and those that are invariable.  Those which inflect, such as big- बड़ा (badaa), or good – अच्छा (acha) and small – छोटा (chota), end in आ (aa) in the masculine singular, ए(a) in masculine plural and ई (e) in the feminine singular and plural.   The invariable adjectives, like clean- साफ (saaf), hot – गरम (garam), excellent – उत्तम (uttam), difficult – कठिन (kathin), firm – द्रुध (drudh), monthly- मासिक (masik), daily- दैनिक (dainik), strong- बलवान (balvaan), etc never change.

egs:

English
Hindi
Transliteration

Good Boy
अच्छा लड़का
Achcha ladka

Good Girl
अच्छी लड़की
Achchi ladki

Good Boys
अच्छे लड़के
Achche ladke

Good Girls
अच्छी लड़कियाँ
Achchi ladkiyam

Cold water
ठंडा पानी
Thanda paani

Small house
छोटा घर
Chota ghar

Small table
छोटी मेज़
Choti mez

Small tables
छोटी मेज़ें
Choti mezen

Small rooms
छोटे कमरे
Chote kamre

Black cat
काली बिल्ली
Kaali billi

Fat men
मोटे आदमी
Mote admi

Sweet fruits
मीठे फल
Meethe phal

Hot milk
गरम दूध
Garam doodh

This small girl is my sister.
यह छोटी लड़की मेरी बहन है।
Yeh choti ladki meri bahan hai

He drinks hot tea.
वह गरम चाइ पीता है।
Vah garam chai peeta hai

The elephant is a big animal.
हाथी बड़ा जानवर है।
Haathi bada janvar hai

Based on the use, adjective is divided into the following categories:

  1. Adjective of Quality – गुणवाचक (gunavachak)
  2. Adjective of Number – संख्यावाचक (samkhyavachak)
  3. Adjective of Quantity – परिमाणवाचक (parimanvachak)
  4. Demonstrative Adjective – संकेतवाचक (sanketvachak)

     

     

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