Case Endings – कारक (karak) – Part 1

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The form of noun or pronoun that forms a direct connection with the verb is called case.

The Cases are indicated by the addition of suffixes, विभक्ति or postpositions, प्रत्यय. Only for vocative case, the case endings are used as prefixes. For all other cases, the case endings are suffixes.

There are eight cases in Hindi.

1. Nominative – (the doer)- कर्ता – ने 
2. Accusative –(action/deed, that which is done) – कर्म – को 
3. Instrumental – (producing, causing) करण – से, के साथ, के द्वारा 
4. Dative – (to whom, or for whom given) – संप्रदान – के लिए, को 
5. Ablative – (taking from/separation/detachment) – अपादान – से (पृथक) 
6. Genitive –( bound up with, related) – संबंध – का, के, की – The Genitive Case signifyies any relation or connection which may exist between two or more persons or things. 
7. Locative – (placing upon) अधिकरण – में, पर – It has reference to place, time, and logical sequence. 
8. Vocative –(calling to, address) संबोधन – हे ! हरे ! – The Vocative is the Case used when a person or persons are directly addressed.

This poem could help you to remember all the case endings:

“कर्ता ने अरु कर्म को, करण रीति से जान । 
संप्रदान को, के लिए, अपादान से मान ।। 
का, के, की, संबंध हैं, अधिकरणादिक में मान । 
रे ! हे ! हो ! संबोधन, मित्र धरहु यह ध्यान ।। “

(Karta ne aru karm ko, karan reeti se jaan.

Sampradaan ko,ke liye, apadaan se maan.

ka, ke, ki, sambhandh hai, adhikaranaadik mein maan.

re! hey! ho! sambodhan, mitr dharahu yeh dhyan.)

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