The Use of सक (Sak)

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सक (Sak) means can or could. It is used with the verb-root. ने is not added to the subject when सक is used. Variations to सक are applied according to the gender and number of the noun – सका, सकी, सके, सकेंगे, सकते, सकती, सकता. Since सक (Sak) denotes the ability or capability or possibility to do something, it is known as शक्ति बोधक सहायक क्रिया (shakti bodhak sahayak kriya). सक is also used for denoting permission (i.e. may).
Examples:

English
Hindi
Transliteration

He can speak Tamil.
वह तमिल बोल सकता है।
Vah Tamil bol sakta hai

Peter can climb a tree
पीटर पेड़ पर चढ़ सकता है।
Peter ped par chadh sakta hai

Neeraja can sing Hindi songs.
नीरजा हिन्दी गीत गा सकती है।
Neeraja Hindi geet gaa sakti hai

Can you understand my talk?
क्या तुम मेरी बात समज सकते हो?
Kya tum meri baat samaj sakte ho?

I don’t know if I can lift this piano by myself.
मैं नहीं जानता की मैं अपने आप यह पियानो उठा सकता हूँ या नहीं।
Main nahin jaanta ki main apne aap yeh piano utha sakta hoon ya nahin

Could you lend me your newspaper?
क्या आप मुझे आपके अख़बार उदार दे सकते है?
Kya aap mujhe aapke akhbaar udaar de sakte hai?

Can I go to the party?
क्या मैं पार्टी/ दावत में  जा सहता हूँ?
Kya main party/daavat mein jaa sahta hoon?

Balu could not pass the examination.
बालू परीक्षा में उतीर्ण नहीं हो सका।
Balu pareeksha mein uteern nahin ho saka

I could not meet you yesterday.
कल मैं तुमसे नहीं मिल सका।
Kal main tumse nahin mil saka

Can you smoke outside please?
क्या आप बाहर धूम्रपान कर सकते है?
Kya aap bahar dhoomrapaan kar sakte hai?

You can go.
तुम जा सकते हो।
Tum jaa sakte ho

Can he lift 150 kgs?
क्या वह एक सौ पच्चास किलो उठा सकता है?
Kya vah ek sau pachchas kilo otha saktha hai?

May I use your swimming pool this afternoon?
मैं इस दोपहर को आपके स्विम्मिंग पूल (तरणताल) का इस्तामाल कर सकता हूँ?
Main is dopahar ko aapke swimming pool (tarantaal)  ka istamaal kar sakta hoon?

May I leave the table?
मैं टेबल/ मेज़ छोड़ सकता हूँ?
Main table/mez chod sakta hoon?

We shall not be able to catch the train today.
हम आज रेलगाड़ी नहीं पकड़ सकेंगे।
Hum aaj relgaadi nahin pakad sakenge

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