Conjunctions – part 1

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Conjunction – समुच्छय बोधक (Samuchaya bodhak)

A conjunction is a word that connects other words or groups of words or sentences.  There are two types of conjunctions in Hindi – समानाधिकरण (Samaanaadhikaran) and व्यधिकरण (vyadhikaran)

  1. समानाधिकरण (Samaanaadhikaran) Conjunctions  connects two grammatically equal words or word groups or sentences.The types of समानाधिकरण (Samaanaadhikaran) Conjunctions are:
  • संयोजक – Samyojak (Additive) such as and-और (aur), and-व (va), and- तथा (tatha), एवं (evam). They are used to join grammatically equal single words or clauses or sentences.

English
Hindi
Transliteration

Ram and Shyam
राम और श्याम
Ram aur Shyam

Bob and Dan are friends.
बॉब और दान दोस्त हैं।
Bob aur Dan dost hai

Clouds came and it started raining.
बादल आए और वर्षा होने लगी।
Badal aye aur varsha hone lagi

bid and offer price
बोली एवं प्रस्तावित कीमत
boli evam prasthavit keemath

prospectus and rights
विवरण पत्र एवं अधिकार पत्र
vivaran patr evam adhikaar patr

printing and stationery supplies
छपाई तथा लेखन सामग्री
chapaayi tatha lekhan samagri

complaint and suggestion book
शिकायत सुझाव पुस्तिका
shikaayat va sukhaav pustika

  • Vibhajak (Disjoint) such as or -या (ya), and/or -वा (va), or -अथवा (athva), किंवा (kinwa), की (ki), या-या (ya-ya), whether…or – चाहे-चाहे (chahe-chahe), either…or/what -क्या-क्या (kya-kya), neither…nor -ना-ना (na-na), etc. It shows a prohibition of one and acceptance or recognition of another clause or word.

English
Hindi
Transliteration

Ram or Shyam
राम या श्याम
Ram ya Shyam

Take a knife or a dagger.
चाकू या छुरी ले लो।
chaku ya churee le lo

Whether you read today or tomorrow…
चाहे आज पढ़ो चाहे कल पढ़ो
Chahe aaj padho chahe kal padho

Either it will rain or there will be a storm
वर्षा होगी अथवा आँधी आएगी।
Varsha hogi athava aandhi ayegi

He neither hears nor speaks.
वह सुनता है बोलता है।
Vah na sunta hai na bolta hai

  • विरोध दर्शक (Virodh darshak): This conjuction denotes a contradiction or a conflict or aversion between the two words or clauses or sentences. परन्तु (parantu), किन्तु (kintu), वरना (varna), लेकिन (lekin), etc are the Virodh darshak conjuctions.

English
Hindi
Transliteration

I went to his house but he did not meet.
मैं उसके घर गया परन्तु वह नहीं मिला।
Main uske ghar gaya parantu vah nahin mila

He is a wise guy, but is naughty.
लड़का बुद्धिमान है, पर नटखट है।
Ladka budhimaan hai, par natkhat hai

Not merely for two days, I will remain for two years.
न केवल दो दिन वरना दो साल तक रहूँगा।
Na keval do din varna do saal tak rahoonga

I like to study but he likes to play.
मुझे पढ़ना पसंद है, लेकिन वह खेलना पसंद करता है।
Mujhe padna pasand hai, lekin vah khelna pasand karta hai

He is small, yet he is very strong.
वह छोटा है, तो भी बड़ा बलवान है।
Vah chota hai, to bhi bada balvaan hai

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