Number – part 4

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Rules for changing Singular Number – एकवचन (ekvachan) to Plural Number- बहुवचन (bahuvachan) – – without Case:  contd…….

  1. Feminine nouns ending in ‘उ’ & ‘ऊ’ form plurals by changing  ‘उ’ & ‘ऊ’ to ‘एँ ‘

                             Singular
                                Plural

English
Hindi
Transliteration
English
Hindi
Transliteration

Thing
वस्तु
Vastu
Things
वस्तुएँ
Vastuyem

Cow
गौ
Gau
Cows
गौएँ
Gauyem

Daughter in law
बहु
Bahu
Daughters in law
बहुएँ
Bahuyem

Bride
वधू
Vadhu
Brides
वधुएँ
Vadhuyem

  1. Except for the Feminine nouns that end in ‘ई’, most of the other feminine nouns can be changed to plural by adding ‘एँ

                             Singular
  Plural

English
Hindi
Transliteration
English
Hindi
Transliteration

Neck-Chain
माला
Maala
Neck-Chains
मालाएँ
Maalayem

Thing
वस्तु
Vastu
Things
वस्तुएँ
Vastuyem

  1. For changing some nouns to their plural forms, collective words like गण–clan, लोग-people/community, वृन्द-covey, जन-folks/tribe, and so on are added to the singular nouns.

                             Singular
  Plural

English
Hindi
Transliteration
English
Hindi
Transliteration

Student/reader
पाठक
Padhak
Students/readers
पाठकगण
Padhakgan

Teacher
अध्यापक
Adhyaapak
Teachers
अध्यापकवृंद
Adhyaapakvrind

Student/disciple
विद्यार्थी
Vidyaarthi
Students/disciples
विद्यार्थीलोग
Vidyaarthilog

Sinner
पापी
Paapi
Sinners
पापीजन
Paapijan

Kin
बन्धु
Bandhu
Kinsfolk
बन्धु जन
Bandhujan

You
आप
Aap
You
आपलोग
Aaplog

Army/corp
सेना
Sena
Army/corps
सेनादल
Senadal

Rules for changing Singular Number – एकवचन to Plural Number- बहुवचन – with Case:

  1. All nouns ending in ‘अ’, ‘आ’, ‘उ’, ‘ऊ’, ‘ओ’ and ‘ए ’ could be changed to the plurals by changing the ending sound to ‘ओं ’. Possibly a few words do not conform to this rule.

                             Singular
  Plural

English
Hindi
Transliteration
English
Hindi
Transliteration

In the hand
हाथ में
haath mein
In the hands
हाथों में
haathom mein

from the eye
आँख से
aankh se
from the eyes
आँखों से
aankhom se

The dog
कुत्ते ने 
kutte ne
The dogs
कुत्तों ने
kuttom ne

On the climber/creeper
लता पर
lata par
On the climbers/creepers
लाताओं पर
lataom par

to the animal
पशु को
pashu ko
to the animals
पशुओं को
pashuom ko

  1. All nouns ending in ‘इ’ & ‘ई’ could be changed to their plurals by changing the ‘इ’ & ‘ई’ to ‘यों ‘.

                             Singular
  Plural

English
Hindi
Transliteration
English
Hindi
Transliteration

From saint
मुनि से
muni se
From saints
मुनियों से
muniyom se

In the river
नदी में
nadi mein
In the rivers
नदियों में
nadiyom mein

Accusative case – को
विद्यार्थी को
vidyaarthi ko
विद्यार्थियों को
vidyaarthiyom ko

The personal pronouns are as follows:

                            Singular
                    Plural

First Person
I
मैं (main)
We
हम (ham)

Second Person Intimate
You
तू (tu)

Second Person Familiar
You
तुम (tum)
You
तुम (tum)

Second Person Respectful
You
आप (aap)
You
आप/ आपलोग (aap/aaplog)

Third Person Near
He, She, It, This
यह (yah)
They,These
ये (ye)

Third Person Far
He, She, It, That
वह (vah)
They, Those
वे (ve)

The possessive pronouns:

SINGULAR
PLURAL

English
Hindi
English
Hindi

My
मेरा (mera)
Our
हमारा (hamara)

Your
तेरा (tera)
Your
आपका (aapka)

Your
तुम्हारा
(tumhara)
Their
उनका (unka)

His
उसका (uska)

original audio file
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