Hindi Sound and Symbol of the day
Dependent form (when used with another consonant)
ओं is ओ plus the bindu which makes the ओ nasalized. This sound because is used with all plural nouns when used with a postposition. You will most often see it in its dependent form which follow the consonant it goes with with a line with a backslash and the dot on top.
Here are some examples of words using this sound:
कामरों में – in the rooms
लड़कों से – from the boys
लड़कियों के लिए – for the girls
छातों के साथ – with the umbrellas
लोग and लोगों
This brings us to Fatima’s two other words, लोगों and लोग. (see the last Learn Hindi Daily Show).
लोग and लोगों both mean “people”. However the one with the ओं ending is used with a postposition, and the one without it is not.
हम लोग खा रहे हैं। We people are eating.
यह खाना उन लोगों के लिए है। This food is for those people.
Masculine and Feminine Forms
Jami wrote us about a previous lesson:
Namaste! I was wondering if you could please include feminine translations in your lessons? Since roughly half the population is female (myself included), it would be extremely useful if you could include both male and female translations. Thank you!!
We will try to include both the feminine and masculine forms as often as we can. However, we all need to know what how to change between feminine and masculine sentences.
To move from a masculine form to a feminine form almost always means removing an ending आ or ए and replacing it with a ई.
For example a man would say:
मैं हिंदी पढ़ता हूँ। I read Hindi. (could also mean “I study Hindi.”)
But a woman would replace that आ sound on the end of पढ़ता with an ई sound. A woman would say”
मैं हिंदी पढ़ती हूँ। I read Hindi. (could also mean “I study Hindi.”)
This was an example with a verb, but it works with adjectives too.
A man would say, मैं लम्बा हूँ। I am tall.
But a woman would replace that ending आ on the end of लम्बा with a ई sound to make लम्बी.
A woman would say, मैं लम्बी हूँ। I am tall.
Those were examples of replacing the आ sound with ई when changing a sentence from having a masculine subject to a feminine subject. But there are times you replace a ए with an ई as well.
ask a man: आप कैसे हैं? How are you?
change the ए sound on the end of कैसे to an ई sound when asking a woman to make कैसी.
ask a woman: आप कैसी हैं? How are you?
ask a man: क्या आप चाय पीते हैं? Do you drink tea?
but ask a woman: क्या आप चाय पीती हैं? Do you drink tea?
See how that works?
The reason there is an ए in these masculine sentences is because आप is grammatically plural, even when talking to a single person. ए is the ending that is used on verbs and adjectives that agree with a masculine plural subject. However, the feminine version only has ई.
आप can refer to one or more people. Just like in English you can say “you” to an individual or a group of individuals. In English, you can indicate that the “you” refers to multiple people by saying “you people” or “you all”. (I should point out that in some places saying “you people” in English can come across in a negative way. It is probably better to say “you all”.)
In Hindi, you can do a similar thing. If you want to indicate that आप refers to a group. You can say आप लोग.
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The Clever Bird
There are a nice collection of stories at http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/mideast/hindi/stories.html. I emailed the site’s owner, Gabriela Nik. Ilieva to see if we could use some of them on this site. He wrote back and said “absolutely”. Today we will just have Sonia read it to us. You can go by the NYU site to see more information about the story at http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/mideast/hindi/stories/bird.html
एक चिड़िया थी | उसका नाम चींची था | एक दिन की बात है | चीची चिड़िया गाय के पास बैठी थी | वह दाने चुग-चुग कर खा रही थी | गाय ने गोबर किया | चिड़िया गोबर में दब गई | वह उड़ न सकी |
उधर से एक कुत्ता आया | चिड़िया ने कहा कि भाई कुत्ते मुझे निकाल |
कुत्ते ने कहा निकालूँगा तो खा लूँगा |
चिड़िया ने कहा कि हाँ खा लेना |
कुत्ते ने चिड़िया को गोबर से बाहर निकाला | अब चिड़िया ने कहा कि मुझे धो तो ले |
कुत्ता चिड़िया को नल पर ले गया | वह धोकर उसे चिड़िया को खाने लगा |
चिड़िया ने कहा कि सुखा तो ले |
कुत्ते ने चिड़िया को धूप में रख दिया | थोड़ी देर में चिड़िया के पंख सूख गये | वह फुर्र करके उड़ गई |
कुत्ते मुँह देखता रह गया |
Looking for something more basic? Why not try our "50 Hindi Words to Get You Started" Lesson?
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