Learn Hindi Daily Show (price; ने; past tense transitive; mystery word; The Clever Bird)

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Mystery Word From The Last Episode

In our last episode, we challenged you to understand a mystery word.  This is to give you practice listening for a word, and looking it up. The word was दाम.

दाम means “price” or “cost”.  It is a masculine noun.

example sentence:

इसका दाम क्या है?  – What is the price of this?

Here are some other words related to this:

क़ीमत means price/cost, but it is feminine gender.   इसकी क़ीमत क्या है?

महंगा – expensive

सस्ता – cheap

एकदाम – fixed price (masculine) – notice it is a combination of एक meaning “one” and दाम meaning “price”. literally “one price”.

Later in the show we will have another mystery word.

 

Daily Symbol and Sound

 

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ने is न + ए

This is the postposition that is used with transitive verbs in the past tense.  What is a transitive verb?  It is a verb that takes an object.  An intransitive verb does not.  Here is a list of verbs, try to figure out which ones are transitive and which ones are intransitive:

to go  – जाना

to eat – खाना

to write – लिखना

to come – आना

to sleep – सोना

The ones that only affect the subject of the sentence are the intransitive.  The ones that affect something else are the transitive ones.

The intransitive ones are:

to go  – जाना

to come – आना

to sleep – सोना

With those verbs you would not use the ने postposition.  But with the following verbs you would:

to eat – खाना

to write – लिखना

उसने केला खाया।   He/she ate a banana.

रामने पत्र लिखा।  Ram wrote a letter.

Even if the object is not mentioned, you still use ने with the transitive verbs in the past tense:

उसने खाया।   He/she ate a banana.

रामने लिखा।  Ram wrote a letter.

ने you will see and hear in other places as well.  ना is the ending you see on verbs in their dictionary form.  And when you use that verb with a post position, then you see the ending change to ने.  Consider these verbs and phrases.

to eat – खाना      for eating खाने के लिए

to write – लिखना   for writing लिकने के लिए

to sleep – सोना     for sleeping सोने के लिए

If you do not know all of your letters, then learn न, ए, and the combination of the two ने today.

मैं vs मैंने

Fatima’s had asked us about  मैं vs. मैं ने (http://www.ispeakhindi.com/2011/04/22/learn-hindi-daily-show/)

Also, Ashwin wrote something similar

“When do you use “main” versus “maine”?:
2 – Below, “I ate breakfast” was translated to “Maine naashta khaa liya”. Is it not “Maine naashta khaya”? And can you explain when one uses “liya”? (http://www.ispeakhindi.com/2011/03/21/learning-the-use-of-i/)

1)  The difference between mein (मैं) and meinne (मैं ने) has to be explained with some examples and some explanation about the past tense.  First, mein is मैं which means “I”.  “meine” is really “I” plus the postposition ne ने.  This post position does not have an equivalent in English.  And it is only used in the past tense with transitive verbs.

I went home.  मैं घर गया। (mein ghar gayaa).  “went” (or rather “to go”) is an intransitive verb.  It does not take an object.
I ate an apple.  मैं ने सेब खाया। (mein ne seb khaayaa) “ate” (or rather “to eat”) is transitive.  खाना (khaanaa) can take an object.  And even when an object is not mentioned, we know that that the process of “eating” actually affects something else.
Here are some related lessons that you might find useful:
http://www.ispeakhindi.com/2009/11/20/past-participle/
http://www.ispeakhindi.com/2009/09/07/past-tense-without-ne/
http://www.ispeakhindi.com/2009/09/06/past-tense-with-ne/

 

Example Sentences

Suresh had put together a lesson with several example sentences that are related to the topic today in his Hindi Lesson No. 99 – Key Sentences lesson. Let’s review them again:

6.मैंने काम किया|

(Mainey kaam kiya.)

I did the work.

 

7.उसने काम किया|

(Usney kaam kiya.)

He did the work.

 

8.हमने काम किया|

(Hamney kaam kiya .)

We did the work.

 

तुमने काम किया।

(tumne kaam kiyaa)

You did the work.

 

9.आपने काम किया|

(Aaapney  kaam kiya.)

You did the work.

 

10.उन्होंने काम किया|

(Unhoney kaam kiya. )

They did the work.

Mystery Word

Try to understand the mystery word.  Do you know how to write it?  Do you know what it means?  Can you use it in a sentence?  Do you understand the example sentence?  What are some related words?

The Clever Bird

In our last show we had Sonia read The Clever Bird story.  (You can go by the  NYU site to see more information about the story at http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/mideast/hindi/stories/bird.html)  This time, let’s hear it again, but listen out for the use of ने as the postposition used with transitive verbs.

करना means to do, and you will see it in the past tense forms:  किया

कहना –  to say;  Listen for it in the form  कहा (said)

What other transitive verbs do you see in the past tense?

चतुर चिड़िया

एक चिड़िया थी | उसका नाम चींची था | एक दिन की बात है | चीची चिड़िया गाय के पास बैठी थी | वह दाने चुग-चुग कर खा रही थी | गाय ने गोबर किया | चिड़िया गोबर में दब गई | वह उड़ न सकी |
उधर से एक कुत्ता आया | चिड़िया ने कहा कि भाई कुत्ते मुझे निकाल |
कुत्ते ने कहा निकालूँगा तो खा लूँगा |
चिड़िया ने कहा कि हाँ खा लेना |
कुत्ते ने चिड़िया को गोबर से बाहर निकाला | अब चिड़िया ने कहा कि मुझे धो तो ले |
कुत्ता चिड़िया को नल पर ले गया | वह धोकर उसे चिड़िया को खाने लगा |
चिड़िया ने कहा कि सुखा तो ले |
कुत्ते ने चिड़िया को धूप में रख दिया | थोड़ी देर में चिड़िया के पंख सूख गये | वह फुर्र करके उड़ गई |
कुत्ता मुँह देखता रह गया |

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Started ISpeakHindi.com in June 2007. Continue to work on ISpeakHindi.com to learn Hindi myself and to help others want to learn it. Nathan Price is the sole owner of ISpeakHindi.com.