Learn Hindi Daily Show – What do you like? – past tense with intransitive verbs – Clever Bird story

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“What do you like?”  “I like to study Hindi.” Today we go over these phrases.  One is the phrase of the day and the other is covered in answer to a listener’s question.  Do you know the Hindi letter र ?  It has several different forms, and can be the most difficult Hindi consonant to learn to write and read.  We go over the past tense with intransitive verbs.   We also look at the clever bird story.


Phrase of the Day

What do you like?

आपको क्या पसंद है?

(āp-kō kyā pa-sand hai?)

 

आपको (āp-kō)  – to you

क्या (kyā) – if it is in the middle of the sentence, it means “what”, but if it is at the beginning of the sentence then it turns the sentence into a “yes/no” question.

पसंद (pa-sand) – like

है (hai) – is

Letter and Sound of the Day

र (ra)

If you have the Hindi Alphabet cards, this is the card you need to focus on today.

IMG_8606 IMG_8607

If you are interested in learning your letters, then I would recommend that you get the Hindi Letter Flashcards.

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रहा (ra-hā) – used in the continuous/progressive tenses (see: Learn Hindi Daily Show – Do you like it here? – Past Progressive Tense and Learn Hindi Daily Show – I live in India, aa, clean, present continuous tense)

 

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head – सिर (sir)

 

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opinion – राय (rāy)

 

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India – भारत (bhā-rat)

 

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to do – करना (kar-nā)

 

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to stay/to remain/to live – रहना (rah-nā)

 

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TV – दूरदर्शन (dūr-dar-śan)

 

रु = र + उ see: Learn Hindi Daily Show – salt, ru, I hope

रू = र + ऊ see: Learn Hindi Daily Show – Win a word find booklet, to ask, रू,

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क्रम (kram) – numerical order 

(क्र= half क + र)

 

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प्रिय (priy) – dearly, lovely 

(प्रि = half प + र + इ)

 

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प्रकाश (pra-kāś) – light; also a name 

(प्र = half प + र)

 

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प्रेम (prēm) – love; also a name 

(प्रे = half प + र + ए)

 

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सिर्फ़ (sirf) – only

(र्फ़ = half र + फ़)

 

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कर्म (karm) – action 

(र्म = half र  + म)

 

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मूर्ख (mūrkh) – fool 

(र्ख = half र + ख)

 

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कार्य (kāry) – work 

(र्य = half र + य)

Mystery Word from Last Episode

मक्खी (mak-khī) – a fly (f)

मक्खी कहाँ है? (mak-khī ka-hān hai?) – Where is the fly?

to fly – उड़ना (uṛ-nā)

New Mystery Word

Grammar Exercise Answers from Last Episode

I was singing. 

(spoken by a man) मैं गा रहा था।  (maĩ gā ra-hā thā.)

(spoken by a woman) मैं गा रही थी। (maĩ gā ra-hī thī.)

 

We were dancing.

(masculine and mixed gendered groups) हम नाच रहे थे। (ham nāc ra-hē thē.)

(feminine) हम नाच रही थीं। (ham nāc ra-hī thīn.)

 

You were learning. 

Formal:

(masculine) आप सीख रहे थे।  (āp sīkh ra-hē thē.)

(feminine) आप सीख रही थीं।  (āp sīkh ra-hī thīn)

Informal:

(masculine) तुम सीख रहे थे। (tum sīkh ra-hē thē.)

(feminine) तुम सीख रही थीं। (tum sīkh ra-hī thīn)

 

He was drinking.  वह पी रहा था। (vah pī ra-hā thā.)

 

She was laughing.  वह हंस रही थी। (vah haṁs ra-hī thī)

 

They were working. 

(masculine and mixed gendered groups) वे काम कर रहे थे। (vē kām kar ra-hē thē.)

(feminine) वे काम कर रही थीं। (vē kām kar ra-hī thīn)

Grammar Review

In this section, we will learn how to form the simple past with intransitive verbs.  Intransitive verbs are those that do not take a direct object.  Here are some examples of intransitive verbs:

to come – आना (ā-nā)

to swim – तैरना (tair-nā)

to run – दौड़ना (dauṛ-nā)

to get up – उठना (uṭh-nā)

to sleep – सोना (sō-nā)

to dance – नाचना (nāc-nā)

to sit – बैठना (baiṭh-nā)

These verbs agree with the subject, just as they do in English.  To form the past tense, take the stem of the verb and add आ, ए, or ई to the end.  This ending will join to the last letter of the stem, if possible.  If the last letter of the stem is a vowel, then add य before adding the ending.

I came.

(masculine) मैं आया। (maĩ ā-yā)

(feminine) मैं आयी। (maĩ ā-yī.)

 

We swam.

हम तैरे। (ham tai-rē.)

(all female group) हम तैरी। (ham tai-rī.)

 

You ran.

Formal:

(masculine) आप दौड़े। (āp dau-ṛē.)

(feminine) आप दौड़ी। (āp dau-ṛī.)

Informal:

(masculine) तुम दौड़े। (tum dau-ṛē.)

(feminine) तुम दौड़ी। (tum dau-ṛī.)

 

He got up.

वह उठा। (vah u-ṭhā.)

 

She slept.

वह सोयी। (vah sō-yī.)

 

They danced.

वे नाचे। (vē nā-cē.)

(all female group) वे नाची। (vē nā-cī.)

 

Try translating these as an exercise:

I swam.

We ran.

You got up.

He slept.

She danced.

They came.

 

Listener Questions and Comments

Laura left a comment (and the answers to the grammar exercises) on yesterday’s episode:

great lesson as always! Could you please in the future do some example sentences with lagnaa (like from the example sentence today)? this verb tends to confuse me for some reason…

We will go over लगना (lag-nā) in more detail in a future show, but I would like to talk a little bit about it now as well.

I am hungry.

मुझे भूख लगी है।

(mu-jhē bhūkh la-gī hai.)

 

I like the flowers.

मुझे फूल अच्छे लगते हैं।
(mu-jhē phūl ac-chē lag-tē haĩ.)

 

I like to study Hindi.

मुझे हिंदी पढ़ना अच्छा लगता है।

(mu-jhē hindī paṛh-nā ac-chā lag-tā hai.)

 

—-

The transliterations stop at this point in the show.  If you need the transliterations, then use this website http://devtransliteration.appspot.com/

—-

 

 

 

Kate sent me an email:

Nathan-
I’m listening to the Learn Hindi Daily show and liking it a lot.

It would be great to hear an explanation about forming the future
tense. (I’ve the textbook ‘Namaste Ji’, however, listening to an
explanation is a great compliment to reading about grammar.)

Also, listening to ‘The Clever Bird’ was so much fun! (It was
humorous, gentle spirited and had useful vocabulary.) Hoping there’ll
be another story from the series!

Happily,
Kate

The future tense is something that we will cover in more detail in a future show.  But let me give you the summary version.  The future tense does not use a helping verb, e.g. है, हैं, हो, हूँ, etc.  It is just the verb.

To create the correct form of the verb, you take the verb stem, which you get by removing the ना off of the end.  Then add ऊँ, ओ, ए, or एँ.  Let me explain which to add when.

If the subject of the sentence is मैं then add ऊँ.

If the subject of the sentence is तुम then add ओ.

If the subject is not मैं or तुम and it is singular, then add ए.

If the subject is not मैं or तुम and it is plural, then add एँ.

When you add this, it will combine with the previous letter if possible.

Then you have to add गा, गे, or गी depending on the gender and number of the subject.  If the subject is masculine/singular then add गा, if it is masculine/plural add गे, and if it is feminine then add गी.

Here is the general formula:

<verb stem><ऊँ, ओ, ए, एँ><गा, गे, गी>

Let’s run through some examples using the verbs from today’s grammar section.

I will come.

(spoken by a man) मैं आऊँगा।

(spoken by a woman) मैं आऊँगी।

 

We will dance.

हम नाचेंगे।

(all female group) हम नाचेंगी।

 

You will swim.

Formal:

(masculine) आप तैरेंगे।

(feminine) आप तैरेंगी।

Informal:

(masculine) तुम तैरोगे।

(feminine) तुम तैरोगी।

 

He will run.

वह दौड़ेगा।

 

She will get up.

वह उठेगी।

 

They will sit.

वे बैठेंगे।

(all female group) वे बैठेंगी।

We also have a past lesson on the future tense that you might find useful:

Future Tense – भविष्यतकाल (Bhavishyatkaal) (9/8/2009)

Future Conditional or Doubtful – संभाव्य भविष्यतकाल (Sambhavya Bhavishyatkaal) (9/9/2009)

 

Something More Advanced

Today, we will start to go over the “Smart Crow” story.

(You can go by the  NYU site to see more information about the story at http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/mideast/hindi/stories/crow.html)

समझदार कौआ

एक बार बड़ी गरमी पड़ रही थी | एक कौआ बड़ा प्यासा था | उसने इधर उधर उड़कर पानी ढूँढा | पानी कहीं न मिला | अचानक उसे एक घड़ा दिखाई दिया |
कौआ बहुत खुश हुआ | वह उड़कर घड़े के पास पहुँचा | लेकिन घड़ें में पानी कम था | इसलिए कौए की चोंच पानी तक न पहुँच सकी |
कौए ने एक उपाय सोचा | वह अपनी चोंच से कंकड़ उठाकर घड़े में डालने लगा | एक – दो – तीन – चार – पाँच – छह – सात – आठ – नौ – दस – इसी तरह कौआ घड़े में कंकड़ डालता गया – डालता गया |
धीरे-धीरे घड़े का पानी ऊपर चढ़ आया | कौआ घड़े पर जा बैठा | लो उसकी चोंच पानी तक पहुँच गई |
कौए ने खूब पानी पिया | फ़िर वह पेड़ पर आराम करने चला गया |

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About Nathan

Started ISpeakHindi.com in June 2007. Continue to work on ISpeakHindi.com to learn Hindi myself and to help others want to learn it. Nathan Price is the sole owner of ISpeakHindi.com.