“What do you do for a living?” Is the phrase of the day. Which brings to mind the quote, “The worker is worthy of his wages”. This goes nicely with a chance to try out paid subscriber access free for a week, and support the site. See the details in today’s episode. But it doesn’t start or stop there. We look at ए (ē) , आ (ā), and ओ (ō) in matra form. There are some over laps in the way the symbols look, and it can cause some confusion when first learning the letters. After this lesson, it will be clear. Did you do the grammar exercises for the transitive past tense from yesterday’s lesson? Find out if you were right. Then continue to learn some more grammar by learning how to make the future first person tense of verbs, e.g. I will learn; I will become a paid subscriber; etc. At the end, we continue going over the clever crow story. I hope you enjoy today’s episode.
Phrase of the Day
What do you do for a living?
(spoken to a man) आप क्या काम करते हैं ? (āp kyā kām kar-tē haĩ ?)
(spoken to a woman) आप क्या काम करती हैं ? (āp kyā kām kar-tī haĩ)
(literally: What work do you do?)
Letter and Sound of the Day
Today, let us look at the differences in the matra forms of three vowels ए (ē), आ (ā), and ओ (ō). Here they are in the full form on the Hindi alphabet cards.
(If you have the Hindi Alphabet cards, this is the card you need to focus on today.)
(If you are interested in learning your letters, then I would recommend that you get the Hindi Letter Flashcards.)
ए (ē) also has a “dependent” or “matra” form. This is used in combination with a consonant. Look at the “slash” on the top of क (k) in the pictures below.
for – के लिए (kē li-ē) (also written as के लिये (kē li-yē))
please do – कीजिए (kī-ji-ē) (also written as कीजिये (kī-ji-yē))
Here are examples of the matra form of आ.
नाम (nām) – name (m)
दाम (dām) – price (m)
क्या (kyā) – what?
The key lesson for today is to recognize the symbol highlighted below as a separate symbol. What is highlight below is the matra form of ओ. It is NOT a combination of the two matra forms that we saw above of ए and आ.
सोना (sō-nā) – to sleep; gold
बोलना (bōl-nā) – to speak
को (kō) – to
Mystery Word from Last Episode
ख़ाली (khā-lī) – empty, vacant
That cabinet is empty.
वह अलमारी ख़ाली है।
(vah al-mā-rī khā-lī hai.)
भरा (bha-rā) – full
That cabinet is full.
वह अलमारी भरी है।
(vah al-mā-rī bha-rī hai.)
भरना (bhar-nā) – to fill
ख़ाली करना (khā-lī kar-nā)– to empty
New Mystery Word
Grammar Exercise Answers from Last Episode
Laura left the answers to yesterday’s grammar exercises as a comment on the site:
He ate. उस ने खाया। (us nē khā-yā.)
They made. उन्हों ने बनाया। (un-hōn nē ba-nā-yā.)
She ate bread. उस ने रोटी खाई। (us nē rō-ṭī khā-ī.)
We ate bread. हम ने रोटी खाई। (ham nē rō-ṭī khā-ī.)
I ate one apple. मैं ने एक सेब खाया। (maĩ nē ēk sē-ba khā-yā.)
They made two tables. उन्हों ने दो मेज़ें बनाई। (un-hōn nē dō mē-zēn ba-nā-ī.)
Ram made a door. राम ने एक दरवाज़ा खाया। (rām nē ēk dar-vā-zā khā-yā)…. heheh jk राम ने एक दरवाज़ा बनाया। (rām nē ēk dar-vā-zā ba-nā-yā.)
Good job! And good sense of humor on the last one. I know that sometimes I get carried away with the grammar and making every permutation of sentences. Sometimes I create sentences of people doing impossible or improbable things like eating doors. It is always good to add a little fun.
future tense – first person
Let us look at the future tense in the first person in detail today.
Let’s look at some examples first.
I will come.
(masculine) मैं आऊँगा। (maĩ ā-ūn-gā.)
(feminine) मैं आऊँगी। (maĩ ā-ūn-gī.)
I will go.
(masculine) मैं जाऊँगा। (maĩ jā-ūn-gā.)
(feminine) मैं जाऊँगी। (maĩ jā-ūn-gī.)
I will eat.
(masculine) मैं खाऊँगा। (maĩ khā-ūn-gā.)
(feminine) मैं खाऊँगी। (maĩ khā-ūn-gī.)
I will dance.
(masculine) मैं नाचूँगा। (maĩ nā-cūn-gā.)
(feminine) मैं नाचूँगी। (maĩ nā-cūn-gī.)
How does this work? Let’s go through it step by step.
Step 1: Get the verb stem. Do this by dropping off the ना (nā) on the end of the verb.
to come – आना (ā-nā) verb stem: आ (ā)
to go – जाना (jā-nā) verb stem: जा (jā)
to eat – खाना (khā-nā) verb stem: खा (khā)
to dance – नाचना (nāc-nā) verb stem: नाच (nāc)
Step 2: Add ऊँ (ūn) to the verb stem. When possible, this will combine with the last letter of the verb stem. In the example, you see this with नाचना (nāc-nā) – to dance.
आ (ā) => आऊँ (ā-ūn)
जा (jā) => जाऊँ (jā-ūn)
खा (khā) => खाऊँ (khā-ūn)
नाच (nāc) => नाचूँ (nā-cūn) (see how ऊँ (ūn) combines with च (c) on the end?)
Step 3: Add गा (gā) or गी (gī) ending to agree with the gender of the subject. If मैं, I, refers to a man, then add गा on the end. If it refers to a woman, add गी.
to come – आना (ā-nā) verb stem: आ (ā) => आऊँ (ā-ūn)
masculine: will come आऊँगा (ā-ūn-gā)
feminine: will come आऊँगी (ā-ūn-gī)
to go – जाना (jā-nā) verb stem: जा (jā) => जाऊँ (jā-ūn)
masculine: will go जाऊँगा (jā-ūn-gā)
feminine: will go जाऊँगी (jā-ūn-gī)
to eat – खाना (khā-nā) verb stem: खा (khā) => खाऊँ (khā-ūn)
masculine: will eat खाऊँगा (khā-ūn-gā)
feminine: will eat खाऊँगी (khā-ūn-gī)
to dance – नाचना (nāc-nā) verb stem: नाच (nāc) => नाचूँ (nā-cūn)
masculine: will eat नाचूँगा (nā-cūn-gā)
feminine: will dance नाचूँगी (nā-cūn-gī)
Do you see the pattern for making the future tense with मैं (maĩ) ? Try it with the following verbs.
पीना (pī-nā)– to drink
दौड़ना (dauṛ-nā) – to run
सीखना (sīkh-nā) – to learn
सोचना (sōc-nā)– to think
बोलना (bōl-nā)– to speak
काम करना (kām kar-nā)– to work
Create these sentences and post them as a comment:
I will run.
I will learn.
I will think.
I will speak.
I will work.
Check back tomorrow to see if you got it correct.
Listener Comments and Questions
Suresh left a comment on yesterday’s show:
Two alternate words for पत्र (patr) = letter
ख़त = khat
चिट्ठी = chitthee
An online Hindi tutor
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Something More Advanced
The transliterations stop at this point in the show. If you need the transliterations, then use this website
Today, we will continue to go over the “Clever Crow” story.
(You can go by the NYU site to see more information about the story at http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/mideast/hindi/stories/crow.html)
Let’s look at the first few lines:
समझदार – smart, intelligent, clever
कौआ – crow
एक बार – one time, once
बड़ी गरमी – too hot
पड़ना – to fall on
पड़ रही थी – was falling
एक कौआ – one crow; a crow
बड़ा प्यासा – too thirsty
था – was
उसने – it (oblique with the past tense marker ने)
इधर – here
उधर – there
उड़ना – to fly
दूँदना – to search
उड़कर पानी ढूँढा – flew and searched for water
पानी – water
कहीं – anywhere
न मिला – not found
एक बार बड़ी गरमी पड़ रही थी | एक कौआ बड़ा प्यासा था | उसने इधर उधर उड़कर पानी ढूँढा | पानी कहीं न मिला | अचानक उसे एक घड़ा दिखाई दिया |
कौआ बहुत खुश हुआ | वह उड़कर घड़े के पास पहुँचा | लेकिन घड़े में पानी कम था | इसलिए कौए की चोंच पानी तक न पहुँच सकी |
कौए ने एक उपाय सोचा | वह अपनी चोंच से कंकड़ उठाकर घड़े में डालने लगा | एक – दो – तीन – चार – पाँच – छह – सात – आठ – नौ – दस – इसी तरह कौआ घड़े में कंकड़ डालता गया – डालता गया |
धीरे-धीरे घड़े का पानी ऊपर चढ़ आया | कौआ घड़े पर जा बैठा | लो उसकी चोंच पानी तक पहुँच गई |
कौए ने खूब पानी पिया | फ़िर वह पेड़ पर आराम करने चला गया |
Looking for something more basic? Why not try our "50 Hindi Words to Get You Started" Lesson?
Looking for something else? Check out our Hindi/English Dictionary. Learn Hindi