“What work do you do?” was yesterday’s phrase of the day. One possible answer is “I have my own business.” This is today’s phrase. Also, we look at ए and ऐ in our sound of the day section. After today, you will be able to keep these two different letters straight. Did you get the mystery word from yesterday? It was a small one. Ok… It was really छोटा which means small or young. Learn several related words. Try to practice hearing out for the Hindi letters by listening to today’s mystery word. Did you do the grammar homework from yesterday? Check your answers in today’s show to see if you were right. We also continue exploring the future tense looking at verbs used with तुम. In our final part of the show we go over the next few lines in the Clever Crow story.
Note: Our next program will be published on Tuesday, May 31, 2011.
Phrase of the Day
मेरा अपना व्यापार है ।
(mē-rā ap-nā vyā-pār hai)
I have my own business
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Letter and Sound of the Day
Today let us look at two closely related symbols, ए (ē) and ऐ (ai). These also have similar sounds.
If you have the Hindi Alphabet cards, these are the two cards you need to focus on today.
If you are interested in learning your letters, then I would recommend that you get the Hindi Letter Flashcards.
First, let us review ए (ē).
ए (ē) has a “independent” or “full” form which you see at the beginning of the word एक (ēk), which means “one”. See the part that is colored in red
one – एक (ēk)
ए (ē) also has a “dependent” or “matra” form. This is used in combination with a consonant. Look at the “slash” on the top of words in the pictures below.
वे (vē)– them/those
ये (/ē)– these
सेब (sēb)– apple
ने (nē)- (postposition used in the past tense with transitive verbs)
मेज़ (mēz)- table
Now, ऐ (ai) looks like the full form and matra form of ए (ē) combined, but it is not. It needs to bee seen as a completely separate symbol.
ऐनक (ai-nak)– eyeglasses
ऐसा (ai-sā) – like
ऐलान करना (ai-lān kar-nā) – to announce
ऐतिहासिक (ai-ti-hā-sik) – historic
Here it is in its matra form. Notice it has two slashes on top of the consonant.
है (hai) – is
तैरना (tair-nā) – to swim
Take a look at these two words. See how close the symbols and sounds are, but how different the meanings:
में – in (में (mēn) = म (m) + ए (ē) + bindu)
मैं – I
(मैं (maĩ) = म (m) +ऐ (ai)+ bindu)
Also, if you are interested in learning all the main Hindi letters, look at Learn Hindi Letters with Kavitha.
Mystery Word from Last Episode
छोटा (chō-ṭā) – small, young
My small son is in school.
मेरा छोटा बेटा स्कूल में है।
(mē-rā chō-ṭā bē-ṭā skūl mēn hai.)
बड़ा (ba-ṛā) – big
कम (kam) – less
ज़्यादा (zyā-dā) – more
पतला (pat-lā) – skinny
मोटा (mō-ṭā) – fat
लम्बा (lam-bā) – tall
New Mystery Word
Grammar Exercise Answers from Last Episode
Did you do you grammar homework from yesterday’s lesson?
I will run.
(masculine) मैं दौड़ूँगा। (maĩ dau-ṛūn-gā.)
(feminine) मैं दौड़ूँगी। (maĩ dau-ṛūn-gī.)
I will learn.
(masculine) मैं सीखूँगा। (maĩ sī-khūn-gā.)
(feminine) मैं सीखूँगी। (maĩ sī-khūn-gī.)
I will think.
(masculine) मैं सोचूँगा। (maĩ sō-cūn-gā.)
(feminine) मैं सोचूँगी। (maĩ sō-cūn-gī.)
I will speak.
(masculine) मैं बोलूँगा। (maĩ bō-lūn-gā.)
(feminine) मैं बोलूँगी। (maĩ bō-lūn-gī.)
I will work.
(masculine) मैं काम करूँगा। (maĩ kām ka-rūn-gā.)
(feminine) मैं काम करूँकी। (maĩ kām ka-rūn-gī.)
If you had any trouble with these, take a look at yesterday’s lesson.
Let us continue our exploration of the future tense and look at how to formulate verbs for तुम (tum) (informal version of ‘you’).
Let us start off looking at some examples. Keep in mind that we are focusing on the informal version of ‘you’ today, तुम (tum).
You will come.
(masculine) तुम आओगे। (tum ā-ō-gē.)
(feminine) तुम आओगी। (tum ā-ō-gī.)
You will go
(masculine) तुम जाओगे। (tum jā-ō-gē.)
(feminine) तुम जाओगी। (tum jā-ō-gī.)
You will eat.
(masculine) तुम खाओगे। (tum khā-ō-gē.)
(feminine) तुम खाओगी। (tum khā-ō-gī.)
You will dance.
(masculine) तुम नाचोगे। (tum nā-cō-gē)
(feminine) तुम नाचोगी। (tum nā-cō-gī.)
How does this work? Let’s go through it step by step.
Step 1: Get the verb stem. Do this by dropping off the ना (nā) on the end of the verb.
to come – आना (ā-nā) verb stem: आ (ā)
to go – जाना (jā-nā) verb stem: जा (jā)
to eat – खाना (khā-nā) verb stem: खा (khā)
to dance – नाचना (nāc-nā) verb stem: नाच (nāc)
Step 2: Add ओ (ō) to the verb stem. When possible, this will combine with the last letter of the verb stem. In the example, you see this with नाचना (nāc-nā) – to dance.
आ (ā) => आओ (ā-ō)
जा (jā) => जाओ (jā-ō)
खा (khā) => खाओ (khā-ō)
नाच (nāc) => नाचो (nā-cō) (see how ओ combines with च (c) on the end?)
Step 3: Add गे (gē) or गी (gī) ending to agree with the gender of the subject. If तुम (tum), you, refers to a man, then add गे (gē) on the end. If it refers to a woman, add गी (gī). (Yesterday we saw that you add गा for masculine and गी (gī) for feminine. Why is it different today? मैं (maĩ) ‘I’ is singular. However, तुम (tum) ‘you’ is treated as grammatically plural even if you are only referring to one person. गा (gā) is used as the ending for masculine singular subjects and गे (gē) is used for masculine plural subjects. गी (gī) is used for feminine subjects both singular and plural.)
to come – आना (ā-nā) verb stem: आ (ā) => आओ (ā-ō)
masculine: will come आओगे (ā-ō-gē)
feminine: will come आओगी (ā-ō-gī)
to go – जाना (jā-nā) verb stem: जा (jā) => जाओ (jā-ō)
masculine: will go जाओगे (jā-ō-gē)
feminine: will go जाओगी (jā-ō-gī)
to eat – खाना (khā-nā) verb stem: खा (khā) => खाओ (khā-ō)
masculine: will eat खाओगे (khā-ō-gē)
feminine: will eat खाओगी (khā-ō-gī)
to dance – नाचना (nāc-nā) verb stem: नाच (nāc) => नाचो (nā-cō)
masculine: will eat नाचोगे (nā-cō-gē)
feminine: will dance नाचोगी (nā-cō-gī)
See if you can translate the following using तुम for “you”. We will go over the answers on tomorrow’s show.
You will run.
You will learn.
You will think.
You will speak.
You will work.
Here are the verbs to help you out:
पीना (pī-nā)– to drink
दौड़ना (dauṛ-nā) – to run
सीखना (sīkh-nā) – to learn
सोचना (sōc-nā)– to think
बोलना (bōl-nā)– to speak
काम करना (kām kar-nā)– to work
Something More Advanced
The transliterations stop at this point in the show. If you need the transliterations, then use this website
Today, we will continue to go over the “Clever Crow” story.
(You can go by the NYU site to see more information about the story at http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/mideast/hindi/stories/crow.html)
Let’s look at the first few lines:
एक बार बड़ी गरमी पड़ रही थी | एक कौआ बड़ा प्यासा था | उसने इधर उधर उड़कर पानी ढूँढा | पानी कहीं न मिला |
अचानक – unexpectedly, accidentally, suddenly
एक घड़ा – a water pot/ a jug
दिखाई दिया – was seen
अचानक उसे एक घड़ा दिखाई दिया |
कौआ – crow
बहुत खुश – very happy
हुआ – became
कौआ बहुत खुश हुआ |
वह – he/it
उड़ना – to fly
उड़कर – flew and.. (कर is used to chain actions together)
घड़े के पास – near the water pot
पहुँचना – to arrive at; to reach
वह उड़कर घड़े के पास पहुँचा |
लेकिन – but
घड़े में – in the water pot
पानी – water
कम – less
था – was
लेकिन घड़े में पानी कम था |
इसलिए – therefore
कौए की चोंच – crow’s beak
पानी तक – upto the water
न पहुँच सकी – could not reach
इसलिए कौए की चोंच पानी तक न पहुँच सकी |
कौए ने – crow (with the past tense postposition)
एक उपाय – one solution
सोचा – thought
कौए ने एक उपाय सोचा |
वह अपनी चोंच से कंकड़ उठाकर घड़े में डालने लगा | एक – दो – तीन – चार – पाँच – छह – सात – आठ – नौ – दस – इसी तरह कौआ घड़े में कंकड़ डालता गया – डालता गया |
धीरे-धीरे घड़े का पानी ऊपर चढ़ आया | कौआ घड़े पर जा बैठा | लो उसकी चोंच पानी तक पहुँच गई |
कौए ने खूब पानी पिया | फ़िर वह पेड़ पर आराम करने चला गया |
Looking for something more basic? Why not try our "50 Hindi Words to Get You Started" Lesson?
Looking for something else? Check out our Hindi/English Dictionary. Learn Hindi