Learn Hindi Daily Show – I have my own business; future tense with ‘you’ (informal)

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“What work do you do?” was yesterday’s phrase of the day.  One possible answer is “I have my own business.” This is today’s phrase.  Also, we look at ए and ऐ in our sound of the day section.  After today, you will be able to keep these two different letters straight.  Did you get the mystery word from yesterday?  It was a small one.  Ok… It was really छोटा which means small or young.  Learn several related words.  Try to practice hearing out for the Hindi letters by listening to today’s mystery word.  Did you do the grammar homework from yesterday?  Check your answers in today’s show to see if you were right.  We also continue exploring the future tense looking at verbs used with तुम.  In our final part of the show we go over the next few lines in the Clever Crow story.


Note: Our next program will be published on Tuesday, May 31, 2011.

Phrase of the Day

 
मेरा अपना व्यापार है ।

(mē-rā ap-nā vyā-pār hai)

I have my own business

 

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Letter and Sound of the Day

Today let us look at two closely related symbols, ए (ē) and ऐ (ai).  These also have similar sounds.

If you have the Hindi Alphabet cards, these are the two cards you need to focus on today.

 

IMG_86134IMG_8614 

If you are interested in learning your letters, then I would recommend that you get the Hindi Letter Flashcards.

First, let us review ए (ē).

ए (ē)  has a “independent” or “full” form which you see at the beginning of the word एक (ēk), which means “one”.  See the part that is colored in red

image

one – एक (ēk)

ए (ē) also has a “dependent” or “matra” form.  This is used in combination with a consonant.  Look at the “slash” on the top of words  in the pictures below.

 

image

वे (vē)– them/those

 

image

ये (/ē)– these

 

image

सेब (sēb)– apple

 

image

ने (nē)- (postposition used in the past tense with transitive verbs)

 

image

मेज़ (mēz)- table

 

Now, ऐ (ai) looks like the full form and matra form of ए (ē) combined, but it is not.  It needs to bee seen as a completely separate symbol.

image

ऐनक (ai-nak)– eyeglasses

 

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ऐसा (ai-sā) – like

 

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ऐलान करना (ai-lān kar-nā) – to announce

 

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ऐतिहासिक (ai-ti-hā-sik) – historic

Here it is in its matra form.  Notice it has two slashes on top of the consonant.

image

है (hai) – is

 

image

तैरना (tair-nā) – to swim

 

Take a look at these two words.  See how close the symbols and sounds are, but how different the meanings:

 

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में – in  (में (mēn) = म (m) + ए (ē) + bindu)

 

 

image

मैं – I

(मैं (maĩ) =  म (m) +ऐ (ai)+ bindu)

see: Learning the Hindi Letters – Lesson 5 – ए and ऐ

Also, if you are interested in learning all the main Hindi letters, look at Learn Hindi Letters with Kavitha.

Mystery Word from Last Episode

छोटा (chō-ṭā) – small, young

My small son is in school.

मेरा छोटा बेटा स्कूल में है।

(mē-rā chō-ṭā bē-ṭā skūl mēn hai.)

 

बड़ा (ba-ṛā) – big

कम (kam) – less

ज़्यादा (zyā-dā) – more

पतला (pat-lā) – skinny

मोटा (mō-ṭā) – fat

लम्बा (lam-bā) – tall

 

 

New Mystery Word

Grammar Exercise Answers from Last Episode

Did you do you grammar homework from yesterday’s lesson?

 

I will run.

(masculine)  मैं दौड़ूँगा। (maĩ dau-ṛūn-gā.)

(feminine)  मैं दौड़ूँगी। (maĩ dau-ṛūn-gī.)

 

I will learn.

(masculine)  मैं सीखूँगा। (maĩ sī-khūn-gā.)

(feminine) मैं सीखूँगी।  (maĩ sī-khūn-gī.)

 

I will think.

(masculine)  मैं सोचूँगा। (maĩ sō-cūn-gā.)

(feminine)  मैं सोचूँगी।  (maĩ sō-cūn-gī.)

 

I will speak.

(masculine)  मैं बोलूँगा। (maĩ bō-lūn-gā.)

(feminine)  मैं बोलूँगी। (maĩ bō-lūn-gī.)

 

I will work.

(masculine)  मैं काम करूँगा। (maĩ kām ka-rūn-gā.)

(feminine)  मैं काम करूँकी। (maĩ kām ka-rūn-gī.)

If you had any trouble with these, take a look at yesterday’s lesson.

 

Grammar

Let us continue our exploration of the future tense and look at how to formulate verbs for  तुम (tum) (informal version of ‘you’).

Let us start off looking at some examples.  Keep in mind that we are focusing on the informal version of ‘you’ today, तुम (tum).

You will come.

(masculine)  तुम आओगे। (tum ā-ō-gē.)

(feminine)   तुम आओगी। (tum ā-ō-gī.)

 

You will go

(masculine)  तुम जाओगे।  (tum jā-ō-gē.)

(feminine)  तुम जाओगी।  (tum jā-ō-gī.)

 

You will eat.

(masculine)  तुम खाओगे। (tum khā-ō-gē.)

(feminine)  तुम खाओगी।  (tum khā-ō-gī.)

 

You will dance.

(masculine)  तुम नाचोगे।  (tum nā-cō-gē)

(feminine)  तुम नाचोगी।  (tum nā-cō-gī.)

How does this work?  Let’s go through it step by step.

Step 1:  Get the verb stem. Do this by dropping off the ना (nā) on the end of the verb. 

to come – आना (ā-nā)   verb stem: आ (ā)

to go – जाना (jā-nā)   verb stem: जा (jā)

to eat – खाना (khā-nā) verb stem:  खा (khā)

to dance – नाचना (nāc-nā)  verb stem: नाच (nāc)

Step 2: Add ओ (ō) to the verb stem.  When possible, this will combine with the last letter of the verb stem.  In the example, you see this with नाचना (nāc-nā) – to dance.

आ (ā) => आओ (ā-ō)

जा (jā) => जाओ (jā-ō)

खा (khā) => खाओ (khā-ō)

नाच (nāc) => नाचो (nā-cō) (see how ओ combines with च (c) on the end?)

Step 3:  Add गे (gē) or गी (gī) ending to agree with the gender of the subject.  If तुम (tum), you, refers to a man, then add गे (gē) on the end.  If it refers to a woman, add गी (gī).  (Yesterday we saw that you add गा for masculine and गी (gī) for feminine.  Why is it different today?   मैं (maĩ) ‘I’ is singular. However, तुम (tum) ‘you’ is treated as grammatically plural even if you are only referring to one person.  गा (gā) is used as the ending for masculine singular subjects and गे (gē)  is used for masculine plural subjects.  गी (gī) is used for feminine subjects both singular and plural.)

to come – आना (ā-nā)   verb stem: आ (ā) => आओ (ā-ō)

masculine:  will come  आओगे (ā-ō-gē)

feminine: will come  आओगी (ā-ō-gī)

to go – जाना (jā-nā)   verb stem: जा (jā) => जाओ (jā-ō)

masculine: will go  जाओगे (jā-ō-gē)

feminine:  will go जाओगी  (jā-ō-gī)

to eat – खाना (khā-nā) verb stem:  खा (khā) => खाओ (khā-ō)

masculine: will eat खाओगे (khā-ō-gē)

feminine: will eat खाओगी  (khā-ō-gī)

to dance – नाचना (nāc-nā)  verb stem: नाच (nāc) => नाचो (nā-cō)

masculine:  will eat नाचोगे  (nā-cō-gē)

feminine:  will dance नाचोगी  (nā-cō-gī)

See if you can translate the following using तुम for “you”.   We will go over the answers on tomorrow’s show.

You will run.

You will learn.

You will think.

You will speak.

You will work.

Here are the verbs to help you out:

पीना (pī-nā)– to drink

दौड़ना (dauṛ-nā) – to run

सीखना (sīkh-nā) – to learn

सोचना (sōc-nā)– to think

बोलना (bōl-nā)– to speak

काम करना (kām kar-nā)– to work

 

Something More Advanced

—-

The transliterations stop at this point in the show.  If you need the transliterations, then use this website

http://devtransliteration.appspot.com/

—-

Today, we will continue to go over the “Clever Crow” story.

(You can go by the  NYU site to see more information about the story at http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/mideast/hindi/stories/crow.html)

Let’s look at the first few lines:

समझदार कौआ

एक बार बड़ी गरमी पड़ रही थी | एक कौआ बड़ा प्यासा था | उसने इधर उधर उड़कर पानी ढूँढा | पानी कहीं न मिला |

 

अचानक – unexpectedly, accidentally, suddenly

एक घड़ा – a water pot/ a jug

दिखाई दिया – was seen

अचानक उसे एक घड़ा दिखाई दिया |

 

कौआ  – crow

बहुत खुश – very happy

हुआ – became

कौआ बहुत खुश हुआ |

 

वह – he/it

उड़ना – to fly

उड़कर – flew and..  (कर is used to chain actions together)

घड़े के पास – near the water pot

पहुँचना – to arrive at; to reach

वह उड़कर घड़े के पास पहुँचा |

 

लेकिन – but

घड़े में – in the water pot

पानी – water

कम – less

था – was

लेकिन घड़े में पानी कम था |

 

इसलिए – therefore

कौए की चोंच  – crow’s beak

पानी तक – upto the water

न पहुँच सकी – could not reach

इसलिए कौए की चोंच पानी तक न पहुँच सकी |

 

कौए ने – crow (with the past tense postposition)

एक उपाय – one solution

सोचा – thought

कौए ने एक उपाय सोचा |

 

वह अपनी चोंच से कंकड़ उठाकर घड़े में डालने लगा | एक – दो – तीन – चार – पाँच – छह – सात – आठ – नौ – दस – इसी तरह कौआ घड़े में कंकड़ डालता गया – डालता गया |
धीरे-धीरे घड़े का पानी ऊपर चढ़ आया | कौआ घड़े पर जा बैठा | लो उसकी चोंच पानी तक पहुँच गई |
कौए ने खूब पानी पिया | फ़िर वह पेड़ पर आराम करने चला गया |

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Started ISpeakHindi.com in June 2007. Continue to work on ISpeakHindi.com to learn Hindi myself and to help others want to learn it. Nathan Price is the sole owner of ISpeakHindi.com.