“I like Hindi.” is something that we all should be able to say. Once we know this phrase, we will be able to say that we like anything. Let’s take a look at the word क्या (kyā) as our sound of the day. This is a very useful word. Not only does it mean “what”, but it also can turn a statement into a question. Did you understand the mystery word from the last episode? See if you are right. And try another one. We also continue to go over the future tense. And we go over the last few line of the clever crow story.
Phrase of the Day
I like Hindi.
मुझे हिंदी पसंद है।
(mu-jhē hin-dī pa-sand hai.)
Sound of the Day
If you have the Hindi Alphabet cards, this is the card you need to focus on today.
If you are interested in learning your letters, then I would recommend that you get the Hindi Letter Flashcards.
क्या (kyā) is a very important word. It means “what” when it is in the middle of a sentence.
आपका नाम क्या है?
(āp-kā nām kyā hai?)
What is your name?
But it has another really important use as well. You can put it in front of any statement to turn it into a yes/no question. For example, the wonderful answers that Rajkumari submitted to the grammar exercises from the last episode can all be changed to questions by adding क्या (kyā) in front of them.
You will run in the park. – तुम पार्क में दौड़ोगे। (tum pārk mēn dau-ṛō-gē.) – तुम पार्क में दौड़ोगी। (tum pārk mēn dau-ṛō-gē.)
Will you run in the park? क्या तुम पार्क में दौड़ोगे? (kyā tum pārk mēn dau-ṛō-gē.)
– क्या तुम पार्क में दौड़ोगी? (kyā tum pārk mēn dau-ṛō-gē.)
You will learn Hindi.- तुम हिन्दी सीखोगे। (tum hin-dī sī-khō-gē.) – तुम हिन्दी सीखोगी। (tum hin-dī sī-khō-gī.)
Will you learn Hindi? क्या तुम हिन्दी सीखोगे? (kyā tum hin-dī sī-khō-gē.) –क्या तुम हिन्दी सीखोगी? (kyā tum hin-dī sī-khō-gī.)
You will think. – तुम सोचोगे। (tum sō-cō-gē) – तुम सोचोगी। (tum sō-cō-gī)
Will you think? – क्या तुम सोचोगे? (kyā tum sō-cō-gē) – क्या तुम सोचोगी? (kyā tum sō-cō-gī)
You will speak Hindi. – तुम हिंदी बोलोगे। (tum hin-dī bō-lō-gē) – तुम हिंदी बोलोगी। (tum hin-dī bō-lō-gī)
Will you speak Hindi? – क्या तुम हिंदी बोलोगे? (kyā tum hin-dī bō-lō-gē) – क्या तुम हिंदी बोलोगी? (kyā tum hin-dī bō-lō-gī)
You will work. – तुम काम करोगे। (tum kām ka-rō-gē.) – तुम काम करोगी। (tum kām ka-rō-gī.)
Will you work?– क्या तुम काम करोगे? (kyā tum kām ka-rō-gē.) – क्या तुम काम करोगी? (kyā tum kām ka-rō-gī.)
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Mystery Word from Last Episode
बैठना (baiṭh-nā) – to sit
यहाँ बैठिये। (ya-hān bai-ṭhi-yē.)– please sit here
sitting – बैठा (bai-ṭhā)
please stand – खड़े हो जाइये। (kha-ṛē hō jā-i-yē.)
standing – खड़ा (kha-ṛā)
New Mystery Word
Grammar: Future Tense
We covered the special cases of creating the future tense with मैं (maĩ) and तुम (tum). Today, we learn about the general case for the future tense that will be used in every other place except with मैं (maĩ) and तुम (tum). Let us look at some examples:
We will come.
हम आएँगे। (ham ā-ēn-gē.)
(all female group) हम आएँगी। (ham ā-ēn-gī.)
You will go. (formal)
(masculine) आप जाएँगे। (āp jā-ēn-gē)
(feminine) आप जाएँगी। (āp jā-ēn-gī)
He will eat.
वह खाएगा। (vah khā-ē-gā.)
She will dance.
वह नाचेगी। (vah nā-cē-gī.)
They will play.
वे खेलेंगे। (vē khē-lēn-gē.)
(all female group) वे खेलेंगी। (vē khē-lēn-gī.)
Ram will write.
राम लीखेगा। (rām lī-khē-gā.)
Meena will read.
मीना पढ़ेगी। (mī-nā pa-ṛhē-gī.)
How does this work? Let’s go through it step by step.
Step 1: Get the verb stem. Do this by dropping off the ना (nā) on the end of the verb.
to come – आना (ā-nā) verb stem: आ (ā)
to go – जाना (jā-nā) verb stem: जा (jā)
to eat – खाना (khā-nā) verb stem: खा (khā)
to dance – नाचना (nāc-nā) verb stem: नाच (nāc)
Step 2: Determine if the subject is singular add ए (ē) or if plural add एँ (ēn). When possible, this will combine with the last letter of the verb stem. In the example, you see this with नाचना (nāc-nā) – to dance.
आ (ā) =>
singular: आए (ā-ē)
plural: आएँ (ā-ēn)
जा (jā) =>
singular: जाए (jā-ē)
plural: जाएँ (jā-ēn)
खा (khā) =>
singular: खाए (khā-ē)
plural: खाएँ (khā-ēn)
नाच (nāc) =>
singular: नाचे (nā-cē)
plural: नाचें (nā-cēn)
(see how ए (ē) and एँ (ēn) combines with च (c) on the end?)
Step 3: Add गा (gā), गे (gē) or गी (gī) ending to agree with the gender and number of the subject. If the subject is masculine and singular, then add गा (gā). If masculine plural then add गे (gē) on the end. If the subject is feminine, add गी (gī). (Remember that आप (āp) is treated as plural, even if you are referring to one person.)
to come – आना (ā-nā)
singular: verb stem: आ (ā) => आए (ā-ē)
masculine: will come आएगा (ā-ē-gā)
feminine: will come आएगी (ā-ē-gī)
plural: verb stem: आ (ā) => आएँ (ā-ēn)
masculine: will come आएँगे (ā-ēn-gē)
feminine: will come आएँगी (ā-ēn-gī)
to go – जाना (jā-nā)
singular: verb stem: जा (jā) => जाए (jā-ē)
masculine: will go जाएगा (jā-ē-gā)
feminine: will go जाएगी (jā-ē-gī)
plural: verb stem: जा (jā) => जाएँ (jā-ēn)
masculine: will go जाएँगे (jā-ēn-gē)
feminine: will go जाएँगी (jā-ēn-gī)
to eat – खाना (khā-nā)
singular: verb stem: खा (khā) => खाए (khā-ē)
masculine: will eat खाएगा (khā-ē-gā)
feminine: will eat खाएगी (khā-ē-gī)
plural: verb stem: खा (khā) => खाएँ (khā-ēn)
masculine: will eat खाएँगे (khā-ēn-gē)
feminine: will eat खाएँगी (khā-ēn-gī)
to dance – नाचना (nāc-nā)
singular: verb stem: नाच (nāc) => नाचे (nā-cē)
masculine: will dance नाचेगा (nā-cē-gā)
feminine: will dance नाचेगी (nā-cē-gī)
plural: verb stem: नाच (nāc) => नाचें (nā-cēn)
masculine: will dance नाचें (nā-cēn-gē)
feminine: will dance नाचेंगी (nā-cēn-gī)
Special rule for verb stems that end in ई (ī) or ऊ (ū).
If the verb stem ends in ई (ī) like पीना (pī-nā) – to drink. Then this last ई (ī) is shortened to इ (i). This is true in all the future tense cases.
I will drink. मैं पिऊँगा। (maĩ pi-ūn-gā) मैं पिऊँगी। (maĩ pi-ūn-gī)
You will drink. (informal) तुम पिओगे। (tum pi-ō-gē.) तुम पिओगी। (tum pi-ō-gī.)
He will drink. वह पिएगा। (vah pi-ē-gā.)
She will drink. वह पिएगी। (vah pi-ē-gī.)
They will drink. वे पिएँगे। (vē pi-ēn-gē.)
A similar thing happens with verb stems that end in ऊ (ū). This gets shortened to उ (u). See an example with the verb छूना (chū-nā) – to touch.
I will touch. मैं छुऊँगा। (maĩ chu-ūn-gā.) मैं छुऊँगी। (maĩ chu-ūn-gī.)
You will touch. (informal) तुम छुओगे। (tum chu-ō-gē) तुम छुओगी। (tum chu-ō-gī)
He will touch. वह छुएगा। (vah chu-ē-gā.)
She will touch. वह छुएगी। (vah chu-ē-gī)
They will touch. वे छुएँगे। (vē chu-ēn-gē.)
See if you can translate the following. We will go over the answers on the next show.
You will run. (formal)
He will learn.
She will think.
They will speak.
We will work.
Here are the verbs to help you out:
पीना (pī-nā)– to drink
दौड़ना (dauṛ-nā) – to run
सीखना (sīkh-nā) – to learn
सोचना (sōc-nā)– to think
बोलना (bōl-nā)– to speak
काम करना (kām kar-nā)– to work
The transliterations stop at this point in the show. If you need the transliterations, then use this website
Listener Comments and Questions
Ramesh left a comment on the site:
Performance is much better on the revamped site. No timeouts. Hooray!
This is wonderful news indeed. Check out the Master 4 Hindi Words Everyday! tool that Ramesh is referring to.
Jonny Ji left a comment on the last episode (Learn Hindi Daily Show – I have my own business; future tense with ‘you’ (informal))
Achhaa kaam :) a bollywood song that helped get the future tense into my head was तेरी इश्क में नाचेंगे from राजा हिन्दुस्तानी. also आती क्या कन्धाला from घुलाम when he sings all the future tense: Toh hum ghoomenge phirenge naachenge gaayenge aish karenge aur kya…
Thanks JohnnyJi for sharing this. I think others will find this useful as well.
I’ve been reading Shantaram by Gregory David Roberts. The descriptions of India in the book are quite vivid. I feel like I am there. Read this description of a journey on a train leaving from Mumbai along with his observations to get an idea of what I am talking about (p. 104)
In the instant that the train started on its journey, the gouging, biting, and brawling ceased completely and were replaced by a studied and genteel courtesy that persisted throughout the entire journey.
A man opposite me shifted his feet, accidentally brushing his foot against mine. It was a gentle touch, barely noticeable, but the man immediately reached out to touch my knee and then his own chest with the fingertips of his right hand, in the Indian gesture of apology for an unintended offence. In the carriage and corridor beyond, the other passengers were similarly respectful, sharing, and solicitous with one another.
At first, on that first journey out of the city into India, I found such sudden politeness infuriating after the violent scramble to board the train. It seemed hypocritical for them to show such deferential concern over a nudge with a foot when, minutes before, they’d all but pushed one another out of the windows.
Now, long years and many journeys after that first ride on a crowded rural train, I know that the scrambled fighting and courteous deference were both expressions of the one philosophy: the doctrine of necessity. The amount of force and violence necessary to board the train, for example, was no less and no more than the amount of politeness and consideration necessary to ensure that the cramped journey was as pleasant as possible afterwards. What is necessary? That was the unspoken but implied and unavoidable question everywhere in India. When I understood that, a great many of the characteristically perplexing aspects of public life became comprehensible: from the acceptance of sprawling slums by city authorities, to the freedom that cows had to roam at random in the midst of traffic; from the toleration of beggars on the streets, to the concatenate complexity of the bureaucracies; and from the gorgeous, unashamed escapism of Bollywood movies, to the accommodation of hundreds of thousands of refugees from Tibet, Iran, Afghanistan, Africa, and Bangladesh, in a country that was already too crowded with sorrows and needs of its own.
The real hypocrisy, I came to realize, was in the eyes and minds and criticisms of those who came from lands of plenty, where no-one had to fight for a seat on a train.
In America on National Public Radio, there is a story on Bollywood actress Shabana Azmi. She is currently starring in playwright Girish Karnad‘s production of Broken Images. In this story, a Hindu short-story writer wonders if she’s betrayed her language and identity by writing an English best-seller. You can read and listen to the full story on NPR’s site: http://www.npr.org/2011/05/31/136590458/shabana-azmi-acting-on-her-convictions
Something More Advanced
Today, we will continue to go over the “Clever Crow” story.
We had gone over the first part in Learn Hindi Daily Show – 1 week free paid subscriber access
And the middle part in Learn Hindi Daily Show – I have my own business; future tense with ‘you’ (informal)
(You can go by the NYU site to see more information about the story at http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/mideast/hindi/stories/crow.html)
Now let’s look at the last few lines.
एक बार बड़ी गरमी पड़ रही थी|
एक कौआ बड़ा प्यासा था|
उसने इधर उधर उड़कर पानी ढूँढा|
पानी कहीं न मिला|
अचानक उसे एक घड़ा दिखाई दिया |
कौआ बहुत खुश हुआ |
वह उड़कर घड़े के पास पहुँचा |
लेकिन घड़े में पानी कम था |
इसलिए कौए की चोंच पानी तक न पहुँच सकी |
कौए ने एक उपाय सोचा |
वह अपनी चोंच से कंकड़ उठाकर घड़े में डालने लगा |
He started picking up pebbles by his beak and put them in the pot.
एक – दो – तीन – चार – पाँच – छह – सात – आठ – नौ – दस – इसी तरह कौआ घड़े में कंकड़ डालता गया – डालता गया |
1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-like this the crow continued to put pebbles into the pot.
धीरे-धीरे घड़े का पानी ऊपर चढ़ आया |
Slowly-slowly water in the pot came up.
कौआ घड़े पर जा बैठा |
The crow sat on the pot.
लो उसकी चोंच पानी तक पहुँच गई |
The crow drank a lot of water.
कौए ने खूब पानी पिया |
Then he went to take rest on the tree.
फ़िर वह पेड़ पर आराम करने चला गया |
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