Learn to identify the root of a verb and conjugate it for a masculine subject in the present tense.
The present tense are simple statements about what is happening now, examples: “I read.” “He writes.” “They shop.” etc. The conjugation of the verb will change depending up three things:
1) The “person” of the subject. Is the subject first person. Are you talking about “I” or “We”. Or is the subject second person, i.e. “you”. Or is the subject third person, i.e. “He” or “them”
2) Is the subject plural or singular?
3) Is the subject masculine, feminine, or a combination of the two. Remember that in Hindi, every noun has a “gender”, and the appropriate form of the verb needs to be used to match that gender.
But before we get to the different forms of the present tense verb for masculine subjects, let us talk about the “root” of a verb. If you were to look up a verb in the dictionary, it would be in its “infinitive” form. Here are the verbs we will be using for the these four sessions on the present tense verbs:
पढ़ना (pardnaa) – to read
लिखना (likhanaa) – to write
कहना (kahanaa) – to say
खाना (khaanaa) – to eat
जाना (jaanaa) – to go
आना (aanaa) – to come
सीखना (siikhana) – to learn
सुनना (sunanaa) – to listen
Notice how all the words end in -ना (-naa)? Remove that part, and you have the root of the verb. It is the root that endings are added to for each different case. The root of the verb “to read” पढ़ना (pardnaa) is पढ़ (pard). Identify the root of each of the other verbs. I will give you the answers tomorrow.
The first person singular refers to “I”, the person that is speaking. “I” in Hindi is “मैं (main)”.
There is a helper verb for मैं (main) is हूँ (huun). You will want to remember this combination मैं (main) goes with हूँ (huun).
Now for the present tense, singular, first person, masculine subjects, you take the root of the verb and add “ता (ta)” and insert it between the मैं (main) goes with हूँ (huun). For example:
I read. मैं पढ़ता हूँ। (main pardta huun).
Take the other verbs above and create the sentences:
I say. (Where I refers to a male speaker.)
We will give you the answers in the next three podcasts.
The plural first person is “We” (masculine) which is “हम (ham)”. This always goes with “हैं (hain)”. Remember this pair “हम (ham)” and “हैं (hain)”.
Now for the plural form of the verb, we need to take the root and add “ते (te)”. For example:
We read. हम पढ़ते हैं। (ham pardte hain.)
Now try to create the masculine, first person, plural forms of each of the verbs given above.
The second person can be a little confusing. There are three versions of you. तू (tuu), तुम (tum), and आप (aap). All three of which can be used when talking to a single person. The first one “तू (tuu)” is grammatically singular and is the least formal. It would be used when talking to your child, for instance. The other two तुम (tum), and आप (aap) are grammatically plural. The most polite version is आप (aap).
You will want to remember these combinations of the three “you” pronouns and the helper verbs.
तू (tuu) and है (hai)
तुम (tum) and हो (ho)
आप (aap) and हैं (hain)
Now in the present tense, the singular masculine is the verb root with “ता (ta)” added. And the plural case is the root with “ते (te)” added. The various forms of “I read.” are as follows:
तू पढ़ता है (tuu pardta hai)
तुम पढ़ते हो (tum pardte ho)
आप पढ़ते हैं (aap pardte hain)
Now try to use the verbs mentioned above to create these three different types of “You (blank)” sentences. We will review the answers in the upcoming podcasts.
The masculine third person singular includes the pronouns he, it, and this. All of these are वह (vah). The helper verb is है (hai). So remember this combination वह (vah) and है (hai). Here is an example:
He reads. वह पढ़ता है। (vah pardta hai)
Now you try creating similar sentences using the verbs above.
The third person plural includes these and they. Which is “वे (ve)”. And the helper verb is “हैं (hain)”.
They read. वे पढ़ते हैं। (ve pardte hain).
I have created the beginnings of a page on the wiki explaining the present tense. I have only completed the example for “to read”. Sign up for an account on the wiki, http://www.ISpeakHindi.com/wiki and log in. Once you are logged in, visit the page about the present tense: http://www.ispeakhindi.com/wiki/index.php?title=Verbs_-_Present_Tense You can click on “edit” for a particular section or for the whole page at the top. Fill out the missing information. If somebody else has already completed all of the verbs, go find another Hindi verb and add it to the list.
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